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Understanding Reference

To understand a lecture or talk, you need to understand the connections or links in the text.

There are four main types of links used in academic texts: reference, ellipsis and substitution, conjunction and lexical cohesion (Halliday and Hasan, 1976).

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Reference

Listen to the texts and identify the examples of reference.

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Substitution and ellipsis

Listen to the texts and identify the examples of substitution and ellipsis.

Substitution is the replacement of one item by another

Ellipsis is the omission of the item.

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Conjunction

Listen to the texts and identify the examples of conjunction.

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Lexical cohesion

Listen to the texts and identify the examples of lexical cohesion

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