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Writing paragraphs: Anaphoric nouns

Exercise 17.

Anaphoric nouns

Identify the references in the following texts:

Exercise a

In the same year the Swiss scholar, J. J. Bachofen, published Das Mutterrecht, (Mother Right), a book showing that matriliny, the tracing of descent through women, and matriarchy, the dominance of women in society, as well as the cult of female goddesses, preceded the patriarchy and the patriliny we find in Biblical and Classical societies. This idea was accepted with varying degrees of caution by many nineteenth-century anthropologists and ultimately was wholly endorsed by Engels, who, in the preface to the fourth edition of The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State , gave warm praise to Bachofen.

Exercise b

Should the qualified defence of diminished responsibility be retained? In answering this question, one has to contend with two muddles in English law, a general muddle about mental disorder and criminal responsibility, and a specific muddle about murder and manslaughter.

Exercise c

Time for Christians began with the Creation and would end with Christ's Second Coming. World history was bounded by these two events. The spread of this belief marks the divide between the mental outlook of Classical antiquity and that of the Middle Ages.

Exercise d

This will not be the case if, for example, Uruguay could have supplied the parties with a commodity that, though useful to both, was in short supply in one country but not in the other. Should we then say that Uruguay is not neutral unless it starts providing the country suffering from the shortage in that commodity? If by not helping it Uruguay is hindering it, then this conclusion is forced on us.

Exercise e

In the same article, Crutzen stresses that chemists used to believe biomass fires produced some 2.5 billion tons of carbon annually, but have now revised this estimate upwards to 3 billion tons.

Exercise f

We have already seen that subjects given no pre-training do less well in the test phase than those given initial discrimination training and we have acknowledged that unambiguous interpretation of this difference is impossible.

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