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Writing paragraphs

Exercise 9

In the following paragraphs, the first and last sentences are correct. Rewrite the middle sentences of to put the theme at the beginning and the rheme at the end of the sentences.

Paragraph 1

Atoms of all elements consist of a central nucleus surrounded by a "cloud" containing one or more electrons. We can think of these electrons as occupying a series of well-defined shells. The number of electrons in its outermost shells determines the behaviour of a particular element. Other factors, such as the total number of electron shells, also play a part in determining behaviour but it is the dominance of the outer electron configuration that underlies the periodic law and justifies the grouping of the elements into groups or families.

Paragraph 2

Every substance contains a certain amount of heat, even a relatively cold substance such as ice. The substance's molecules are in continual motion and, by this motion, possess kinetic energy which produces heat. The average kinetic energy of the molecules are measured by temperature. Cooling to the point at which molecular movement ceases completely should thus be possible. Scientists are very interested in this point, absolute zero, but it is in practice unattainable. At temperatures close to absolute zero some materials exhibit remarkable properties, such as superconductivity and superfluidity.

Paragraph 3

Nauru is so small that the plane lands in what is best described as the capital's main street. To stop cars when planes are landing the seaward side of the runway has traffic lights at each end. Well-fed and brightly clothed Naurans cowd the tiny air terminal with their smart cars. The only hotel, the luxurious Menen, is a 10-minute drive half way round the island and is where new arrivals are driven off in Japanese minibuses. The well-paved road passes rows of neat, modern houses, set among the trees.

(David Lascelles, The Financial Times)

Paragraph 4

The most striking example of value rigidity I can think of is the old south Indian Monkey Trap, which depends on value rigidity for its effectiveness. A hollowed-out coconut chained to a stake makes the trap. A monkey can put its hand though a small hole in the coconut and grab some rice inside. The monkey can put its hand into the hole but cannot take its fist out with rice in it. The monkey's value rigidity traps it when it reaches in. The rice cannot be revalued. He cannot see that freedom without rice is more valuable than capture with it.

(Robert Pirsig, Zen and the art of motorcycle maintenance)

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