Add commas wherever necessary. Name the function of each comma.
1. Advertising is the collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services.
2. Advertising is a form of mass selling and it is employed when the use of direct person-to-person selling is impractical impossible or simply inefficient.
3. It is to be distinguished from other activities intended to persuade the public such as propaganda publicity and public relations.
4. Advertising techniques range in complexity from the publishing of straightforward notices in the classified-advertising columns of newspapers to the concerted use of newspapers magazines television radio direct mail and other communications media in the course of a single advertising campaign.
5. From its unsophisticated beginnings in ancient times advertising has burgeoned into a worldwide industry.
6. In the U.S. alone in the late 1980s approximately $120 billion was spent in a single year on advertising to influence the purchase of commodities and services.
7. American advertising leads the world not only in volume of business but in the complexity of its organization and of its procedures.
8. For these reasons this article deals primarily with advertising in the U.S.
9. Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban industrial civilization mirroring contemporary life in its best and worst aspects.
10. Having proven its force in the movement of economic goods and services advertising since the early 1960s has been directed in increasing quantity toward matters of social concern.
11. The continuing cancer and antidrug abuse campaigns are only two examples of the use of the advertising industry as a means to promote public welfare.
12. Advertising falls into two main categories: consumer advertising directed to the ultimate purchaser and trade advertising in which the appeal is made to dealers through trade journals and other media.
13. Both consumer and trade advertising employ many specialized types of commercial persuasion.
14. A relatively minor but important form of advertising is institutional advertising which is designed solely to build prestige and public respect for particular business concerns as important American institutions.
15. Each year millions of dollars are spent on institutional advertising which usually mentions products or services for sale only incidentally.
16. Another minor but increasingly popular form of advertising is cooperative advertising in which the manufacturer shares the expense of local radio or newspaper advertising with the retailer who signs the advertisement.
17. National advertisers occasionally share the same space in magazine advertising.
18. For example makers of pancake flour of syrup and of sausages sometimes jointly advertise this combination as an ideal cold-weather breakfast.
19. Advertising may be local national or international in scope and so the rates charged for the three different levels of advertising vary sharply particularly in newspapers.
20. Varying rates are set also by newspapers for amusement legal political financial religious and charitable advertisements.
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