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Attitudes are here taken in the meaning advocated by Sarnoff (1970) a disposition to react favourably or unfavourably to a class of objects (p. 179).
In a recent survey, Berwick & Ross (1989) found that the overall intensity of motivation of the studnets was low (p. 206).
Shaw (1983, p. 24) had similar results, leading him to say the students are not learning English so they can change themselves and become like native speakers.
Morrow (1987, p. 58) has taken the view that the development of the reading skill in English may well be the most urgent need of the majority of Japaneses learners. He continues
On theother hand, with the spread of English as an international language, there is an increasing number of Japanese businessmen, scientists and scholars from many disciplines who need to use English not only to communicate with English speakers, but also to communicate with other non-native English speakers who use English for international communication. For this group, the acquisition of speaking and listening skills is vital. (p. 58)
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