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Rhetorical functions in academic writing: Recommendations

It is often necessary, especially in reports and case studies, to include some recommendations or suggestions for further work in - or after - the conclusion. You may need to be cautious in your recommendations.


For example:

Further research is needed, however, before the use of such materials can be recommended for all students in all subject areas at all levels.

However, these solutions can only be temporary and and the only long-term solution seems to be conservation and pollution control..

Further testing should be conducted to determine the effects of chrome layer loss on cylinder barrel performance.

1. Stocks of 20 No. 20361, and 20 No. U.1707 blades must be built up in the Tool Stores to meet present requirements.
2. Worn undamaged blades must be returned to the supplier in batches of 6 for replacement at £10.00 each.
3. New armatures from the supplier must be used when repairing Rip-Snorter motors.

The practical implications of this study suggest that employers need to take steps to understand employees' perceptions of the content of the psychological contract and from this alter the terms of the contract where circumstances permit.

[Coyle-Shapiro & Kesler, 2000].

Given heterogeneous results, banning mobile phones could be a low-cost way for schools to reduce educational inequality.

[Beland & Murphy, 2015]

The results reported here have many implications for managers working with groups. Although traditional theory implies that group leaders have plenty of time at a project's beginning before the group will choose its norms and get to work, this model implies that a group's first meeting will set lasting precedents for how the group will use the first half of its time. That finding suggests that group leaders prepare carefully for the first meeting, and it identifies a key point of intersection between group development and group-effectiveness research on team design.

[Gersick, 1988]

In terms of the findings of our study specifically, we recommend that mall retailers need to actively pursue the fashion conscious shopper as they will shop more often, but to recognize that while these fashion conscious like shopping and want variety, they are also price sensitive and will comparison shop to get fashion at the best price. Our results suggest that for mall retailers to be successful, they will have to recognize that fashion conscious consumers may no longer be price insensitive as suggested by earlier research, but that - fashion shoppers are demanding more from retailers in today's economy. Additionally, as shown in Table 1, shoppers visit the mall to meet a variety of needs that mall retailers will need to recognize and address.

[Iyer & Eastman, 2010]

It is recommended that HEIs and government explore how careers services can be enhanced and resourced to promote employability activities more effectively at faculty and departmental level.

[Lowden, Hall, Elliot & Lewin, 2011].



Strong recommendation


Weak recommendation

… must be done.
… is needed.
... is necessary.
There is a continuing need for …
It is strongly recommended that …
… should be done.
… is strongly recommended.
It is recommended that ...
... should be considered.
It is advisable to …
… could/might/may be considered.


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